Nevertheless, during World War II, the US government and many Americans viewed German Americans and others of "enemy ancestry" as potentially dangerous, particularly recent immigrants. The Americans have got off lightly as compared to the Russians when the discourse turns to mass rape of German women during WW2. Read another story from us: 5 Little Known Facts about Easy Company “Band of Brothers”. According to retired history professor Stephen Fox, who has written a book about the FBI roundup of German Americans during World War II, roughly 3,000 Italians and 11,000 Germans … by MilitaryHistoryNow.com • 25 November, 2018 • 18 Comments. In other cases where both parents were ethnic Germans, children could end up in orphanages while their parents were in detention. There were banned from certain areas and subjected to curfews. Black American soldiers, including the 1 million who served during World War II, were often relegated to less desirable roles and excluded from promises of patriotic camaraderie. It was not until 1948 that the last “enemy alien” was released – three years after the war had ended. None of these internees was ever found guilty of a crime or proven to be a threat to national security. The number of those who spent the war in such camps was, in fact, much higher than the 11,000 detainees. It is unlikely that the Soviets would care about the immigration status of any German soldiers they captured or killed. They wanted recognition of this infringement of their rights as well as reparation. According to The German Order of Battle by George Nafziger, the Waffen SS had five German Americans. The German-Americans and World War II: An Ethnic Experience is a unique study of America's largest ethnic group during one of its most difficult periods. On December 16, 1944, the Germans initiated a massive campaign against the Allies in the Ardennes Forest, a mountainous region extending throughout Belgium, France, and Luxembourg on the Western Front. The Red Army treated captured German soldiers in the worst possible manner when WW2 ended If the German Army acted with absolute disregard for the Geneva Conventions of 1929 pertaining to prisoner of war (POW), the Allies, Soviet Russia, America and British acted little better. The truth is that we will never know how many German Americans went to fight for Germany in WWII. Although living in the DOJ camp wasn’t an ideal option for a family, many chose this rather than being separated. However, their families could come along voluntarily. German-Americans, President Woodrow Wilson declared, were to be treated as “alien-enemies.” If they wanted to be accepted in American society, they would have to throw their German identity away. A small number of these were believed to be Nazi party members who were recruiting for the Nazi Party’s overseas branch. The American camps also held a large number of Germans who had been living in Latin America. German American loyalty to America's promise of freedom traces back to the Revolutionary War. According to The German Order of Battle by George Nafziger, the Waffen SS had five German Americans. They are listed only as a footnote in the book among other data regarding the nationality of Waffen SS personnel. An estimated 4,058 people were thought to have been expelled and sent to the United States to be interned. It was one of several war crimes which were committed during the Battle of the Bulge by members of both Allied and Axis forces. However, the success of these approaches in terms of enlisted soldiers is not known. It is also highly possible that these documents did not survive the war because they were not thought to be of great importance at the time. Some of these were German nationals who had been living in the country for many years. The 1940 census introduced a new question. Another potential reason for the lack of evidence of these soldiers is the nature of the war. The records from the organization do not show any propaganda material calling for German Americans to return to the Fatherland. When we hear of "Rape...German women...WW2" we inevitably hear of the ugly, shoddily dressed, often Mongoloid Red Army soldiers. Cases were looked at on an individual basis. A further eight were suspected of spying. The answer of Eugene, Oregon was a shock. Until this century, the contributions of African-American soldiers in World War … The primary reason for this was the draft evasion campaign that it ran. This led to the passing of the Wartime Study Act in 2007 to look at the complaints being made by surviving former internees and their families. Most were sent to the two main camps which were in Ellis Island or Crystal City in Texas. The problem is that this was an organization that was unsuccessful at what it set out to do. Donald Malarkey, upon whom the scene was based, later recollected that the incident did occur. American soldiers during the Second World War: An Army Of Rapists? At the same time, the US government surveilled, arrested, and interned at least 10,905 ethnic Germans and 288 Italians alongside the Japanese (Krammer, ix). As the war in Europe continued, America was laying the groundwork. However, there are no after-action reports which can corroborate this story. In the acclaimed show Band of Brothers, Donald Malarkey asks a German POW where he is from. It is unknown how many people returned before the program ended and how many fought for Germany. Bombs were dropped on major cities where the documents regarding the immigration and repatriation of these soldiers were kept. The Berizzis were just a few of at least 600,000 Italians and Italian Americans—many of them naturalized citizens—swept up in a wave of racism and persecution during World War II. Utah Camp Guard Opened Fire on German POWs After War was Over. This controversy led to confusion within the organization, with later leaders proving to be less effective than Kuhn had been. Not all the Latin American countries deported their German population. It now required that all respondents included their ethnicity. The most famous is that of Martin James Monti because he was the only one tried for treason. The Government set up four camps. The organization was also under close scrutiny by the US government. It may well have been the case that others sent over were people that the government was keen to get rid of. Introduction. During the course of the war, the U.S. government would intern 31,275 enemy aliens: 16,849 Japanese, 10,905 Germans, 3,278 Italians, 52 Hungarians, 5 Bulgarians, 25 Romanians and 161 more people listed as “other.” One of those “enemy aliens” was Ingrid’s father, Mathias Eiserloh. It now required that all respondents included their ethnicity. The camps provided many facilities families required including doctors and schools which offered American, Japanese, or German lessons. The POW then goes on to explain that his family had answered the call of the Fatherland. The first leader of the German American Bund was Fritz Julius Kuhn who was imprisoned for five years on embezzlement charges. The American military had shrunk enormously between WWI and WWII, and was faced with the prospect of recruiting hundreds of thousands of men to fill the ranks. Monti was a Second Lieutenant in the US Army who went AWOL and joined the Waffen SS. There were programs and schemes before and during the war which encouraged ethnic Germans to return to Germany. Under Roosevelt’s orders, a total of 4,058 Germans were removed as well as 2,264 Japanese and 288 Italians. “Any man who carries a hyphen about with him,” the president told the nation, “carries a dagger that he is ready to plunge into the vitals of this Republic when he gets ready." The only other instances where documentation would be created is if these people returned to the United States or were being sought by the Allied Powers. The precedent was set during the First World War when laws dating back to the 18th Century were used to authorize the detention of anyone considered to be an “enemy alien” and therefore a possible threat to security and the war effort. Family life was able to continue, and 153 children were born in the camp. With an estimated size of approximately 44.2 million in 2018, German Americans are the largest of the self-reported ancestry groups by the United States Census Bureau in its American Community Survey. They are listed only as a footnote in the book among other data regarding the nationality of Waffen SS personnel. As a result, 11,000 people were taken to DOJ camps. Though America produced enormous numbers of armored vehicles (forty-seven thousand tanks alone in 1943–44), only two main types were used by the U.S. Army. He eventually deserted the SS and made his way to the Allies where he was subsequently charged with treason. Brief Overview of the World War II Enemy Alien Control Program Immediately after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, President Roosevelt issued Presidential Proclamations 2525, 2526, and 2527 to authorize the United States to detain allegedly potentially dangerous enemy aliens. In time, some of these would be exchanged as hostages for the return of American citizens detained in Germany. Others remained in the camp. However, it never became law, and no further action was taken. The German-American population is huge and the War Department had good reasons for ignoring … There were approximately 1.2 million German nationals as well as another 11 million US citizens who had at least one German-born parent. Operation Cowboy – How American GIs & German Soldiers Joined Forces to Save the Legendary Lipizzaner Horses in the Final Hours of WW2. Approximately 60 million Americans claim German ancestry. By 1940, Germans made up a large percentage of the “non-American” population in the United States. The shortcomings of American infantry in World War II were repeated in Korea, and in Vietnam. According to eyewitness accounts, an estimated 80 German prisoners of war were massacred by their American captors: the prisoners were assembled in a field and shot with machine guns. Equally enigmatic is post-World War II German Americans' perception of their heritage as inseparable from certain icons and costumes, notably, beer mugs, fast high-quality cars, sausage and sauerkraut— enlivened by the spirit of Bavarian folk music. German-Americans and Italian-Americans had a history of massive numbers of immigrants who came to the U.S. in the (Germans in the mid-19th century) and (Italians in the early 20th century). Charles Burdick, The Frustrated Raider: The Story of the German Cruiser Cormoran in World War I(Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1979) Staff who had worked at the camps also had to agree to secrecy. The main ones were located in Hot Springs, CA and at Fort Oglethorpe in Georgia. Their situation was attributable to several factors, some of which were beyond their control: first, their sympathy for relatives back in the old country was turned against them once the United States entered the war; second, in the early years of the European war several prominent German-Americans had voiced their opinion that German culture was superior to American, and this cultural chauvinism was later … German Americans are the largest ethnic group in the US. Internment of Japanese Americans during the Second World War is widely known and well documented. So, just how many German Americans left the USA to fight for Germany in the war? In 2005, the German American Internee Coalition was formed to campaign on behalf of those who had been interned. Perhaps the most ironic outcome of this policy was the expulsion of 81 Jewish Germans who fled to Latin America to escape persecution in Nazi Germany. “Holy Grail” Was Discovered in 2015 with $17 Billion Cargo, Concentration Camp Guard Who Hid in US for 75 Years Will Be Deported, Seven Fishermen Blown Out of Water by a UXB, U-Boat Wreckage Found – Crew Claimed They Were Attacked by Sea Monster, WWII deserters the US Army tried to hide: the 2013 book revealed how gangs of AWOL GIs terrorized Paris with a reign of mob-style violence, Have You Heard of The Special Forces Ghost Car That Operated in Bosnia (with video), Graf Spee Eagle Worth $26 MILLION, Could be Displayed at the 2022 FIFA World Cup, Newly restored Messerschmitt Bf109G flies again: Test pilot shares his experience, Vietnam Green Beret Had 37 Separate Bullet, Bayonet, & Shrapnel Wounds & Still He Carried On Fighting. German Americans make a great amount of the American people. Several, including Brazil, Mexico, and Venezuela among others set up their own camps. These camps were referred to as DOJ (Department of Justice) Camps. Only enemy aliens could be interned by law. This would make them easier to identify after America entered the war. The scrutiny led to further leaders being prosecuted, and one ran to Mexico to avoid the authorities. Their movement could be restricted. Japanese, German, and Italian American Enemy Alien Internment. There was some support within the government, and a commission was set up in 2005 to review it. German Americans account for about one third of the total ethnic German population in the world. The German soldier on the Western Front depicted in Band of Brothers is believed to be a real person. These five people were classified as “US Volksdeutsche” which means that they were of German descent. By 1940, Germans made up a large percentage of the “non-American” population in the United States. The 1940 census introduced a new question. Little was said or written about what the German Americans experienced during the war. These would be the only records of German Americans returning to Germany to participate in the war. The problem with this question is that there are no hard numbers which can be used to make a determination. (The Conversation is an independent and nonprofit source of news, analysis and commentary from academic experts.) All they would have been interested in was the fact that they were German. Read another story from us: War Crime? If there were any calls for German Americans to fight for Germany, they were not coming from within the country. As the war in Europe continued, America was laying the groundwork. As a result of this policy, American spouses and their American-born children ended up spending a substantial part of the war years in these camps. Even American soldiers raped. There are a few rare cases were non-German Americans joined the Nazi cause. 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